The technology of making cooking oil from fish fat, developed by the domestic research team, has many advantages, creating oil with high nutritional value, less denatured at high temperature.
The project “Improving technology and equipment lines to improve the quality of cooking oil and produce shorteing, margarine from pangasius fat” implemented by Sao Mai Group Joint Stock Company has just been accepted by the scientific council. According to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Duc Manh, Institute of Food Industry, Ministry of Industry and Trade, this is one of the projects that bring great value to the pangasius farming industry.
Talking about the reason for using pangasius fat as cooking oil and nutritious products, Mr. Truong Vinh Thanh, Deputy General Director of Sao Mai Group Joint Stock Company said that the domestic cooking oil production technology is quite good. grow but mainly vegetable oils. Fish oil products are still very strange, only a few imported products are used for children. Meanwhile, in the Mekong Delta region, the output of fish fat removed from the pangasius processing industry is over 1.2 million tons/year. This by-product is sold at a very low price, mainly as animal feed.
Mr. Thanh said that some domestic enterprises have processed fish fat into cooking oil but failed. The reason is that the fishy smell cannot be eliminated and it is difficult to purify the oil. The problem now is to choose what technology to take advantage of pangasius by-products, turn it into high-grade cooking oil, and improve the value chain.
The research team started researching and improving the technology line from January 2018 to June 2020 to complete the pangasius fat processing equipment. This technological line is essentially an improvement of the old fish oil production technology. Eliminates the fishy smell, keeps the good active ingredients in the oil and is simple to store.
The conventional fish oil production process uses non-heat extraction technology, but is only suitable for making low-capacity, pharmaceutical capsules. Oil refining technology on the market is often used by chemical and physico-chemical methods. The research team used physical methods, coagulation, crystallization, filtration, decolorization, and deodorization of fish fat to create cooking oil.
According to Mr. Thanh, this technology is based on the method of cooling the crystallization of essential oils. Liquid and solid oils are separated into two separate parts. Then, the oil is deodorized in an absolute vacuum, vacuum pressure, so the fishy smell is eliminated and the oil is not burned. Based on the advantages of pangasius fat, liquid oil after going through the deodorization stage is bottled. Solid oil (stearin) is used to produce shorterning, margarine.
According to the research team, pangasius fat has many differences compared to normal cooking oil because it contains 90-98% triglycerides, which are esters of fatty acids and glycerin. Fish fat also contains lipids and lipids, vitamins A, E, D… In fish lipids are mainly unsaturated fatty acids with high biological activity accounting for 50% -70% including linoleic, lioneic acid, arachodonic acid. .. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids is balanced, corresponding to palm oil, much more than coconut oil and some other vegetable oils.
Mr. Thanh said that the fat of pangasius and basa fish has the same main composition as the fat of chickens, pigs and some other animals. High levels of saturated fatty acids in animal fats can cause a number of cardiovascular diseases. But in pangasius and basa fish, unsaturated fatty acids account for nearly 80%, less saturated fatty acids and bad cholesterol. “Fish oil has many advantages that vegetable oils do not have such as high nutritional value, high boiling point, little denaturation when frying, rich in unsaturated fatty acids …”, Mr. Thanh said. .
Thanks to the application of this technology, the cost of cooking oil products has increased significantly. Previously, liquid fish oil was priced at 15,000 VND/kg, now it has increased to 50,000 VND/kg. Condensed oil increased from 14,200 VND to 22,000 VND.
According to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Duc Manh, fish oil is rarely used because of its fishy smell, which is very unpleasant. But thanks to the application of high technology, vacuum heating to absorb fishy odors, the oil is still of high quality, not fishy. By changing the refrigerant to separate the oil phase, the finished oil becomes clear, without sediment. The old technology of separating oil and grease phases and suspensions, respectively, is 56% oil and 44% fat and suspension. In the new technology, the oil recovery efficiency is increased to 60%. The number is not large, but production on an industrial scale brings high economic efficiency.
In addition, when manufacturing shorterning, margarine, the team used microorganisms to eliminate fishy odors, the quality of the product is comparable to other products on the market. “30% of pangasius and basa are fat. Previously, it was only used as fertilizer and animal feed. Thanks to this technological line, the economic value of pangasius increased, bringing high income. good income for the people,” said Dr. Le Duc Manh.
What needs to be improved here, according to Dr. Le Duc Manh, is to further increase the omega 3 content in fish oil, so that the product can fully meet the criteria of high-grade cooking oil.
With the results of the project, Sao Mai Group Joint Stock Company is the only company in Vietnam as well as in the world that can take the initiative in manufacturing, processing and trading in shortening and margarine cooking oil products. fish fat.
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