Diet for severe Covid-19 patients

For each underlying disease, F0 will have a different diet. For example, people with diabetes choose and use according to the glycemic index of foods, F0 with hypertensive disease should limit salt use according to different levels…

About 80% of people with Covid-19 have no symptoms, while the remaining 20% ​​have mild to severe symptoms. All patients need to follow a specific nutritional regimen according to each subject to help strengthen resistance, prevent the body from being exhausted leading to malnutrition, even death.

Diet for F0 with underlying disease

F0 is accompanied by underlying diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, overweight and obesity… In addition to complying with the doctor’s treatment regimen, a pathological diet helps to limit and reverse the progression of the disease. . If you don’t follow the pathological diet correctly and strictly, the use of drugs to treat the disease will be less effective.

Each underlying disease will have a different nutritional regimen, so patients need to follow the advice of a nutritionist. For example, people with diabetes should choose and use according to the glycemic index of foods.

Special note in the diet of people with Covid-19 with underlying diseases
F0 has a hypertensive disease that requires salt restriction to different degrees.

F0 with hypertensive disease should limit salt use to different degrees such as a light diet of 400-700mg sodium/day/person (about 1-2g salt)

Moderately bland diet 800-1,200mg sodium/day/person equivalent (about 2-3g salt/day).

The diet is completely bland 200-300mg sodium/day/person and this amount of sodium is already present in the meal food.

F0 with hypertensive disease should limit salt use to different degrees such as a light diet of 400-700mg sodium/day/person (about 1-2g salt)

Diet for F0 with severe symptoms

Covid-19 patients are treated at the hospital, the nutrition regimen depends on the severity of symptoms and according to the hospital’s treatment diet.

If F0 people are awake, they can actively eat and drink. F0 has impaired consciousness and does not self-feed, the diet should be given through a nasogastric tube, or parenteral nutrition.

F0 has impaired consciousness and is not self-feeding, feed through a nasogastric tube, or parenteral nutrition.

Diet for Asymptomatic F0

With F0 without symptoms, the diet of a normal healthy person is as follows:

Eat enough, eat a variety and combination of 15-20 foods, change foods frequently during the day. The daily diet should have a balance between animal and vegetable protein sources (meat, fish, eggs, milk, shrimp, crab, seafood… beans, pulses…) as animal and vegetable fats.

Should use fats from fish, legumes, vegetable oils, limit fats from poultry such as chicken, duck… animal meat such as pig, beef… Use a variety of protein from a variety of food sources and even in one animal or plant food source.

Limit red meat 70-80g/day/person such as cows, pigs, sheep… Increase healthy foods such as fish, seafood, eggs, milk and dairy products, poultry meat, legumes, soybeans and soybean products…

The daily diet for F0 should have a combination with a balanced ratio between animal and vegetable protein sources as well as animal and vegetable fats.

For adults, it is recommended to eat animal protein at a ratio of about 30%-50% of total protein, the ratio of animal lipid/total lipid is less than 60%. The older you are, the more you should eat a moderate amount of animal protein, you need to add a reasonable amount of protein in the ratio of 1/3 animal protein and 2/3 vegetable protein.

For young children, animal protein is necessary for growth and development, so the amount of protein should be in the ratio of 2/3 animal protein and 1/3 vegetable protein in each daily meal.

Increase the use of green vegetables and fruits in daily meals, because vegetables provide antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Vitamins A, C, D, E and minerals such as iron, zinc … have a role in anti-inflammatory, anti-infection, improving resistance and immunity. Green vegetables need 300-400g/person/day and ripe fruit 200-300g.

F0 needs regular water replenishment. For adults, it is necessary to supplement from 1.6 – 2.4 liters of water/person/day (equivalent to 8-12 glasses).

When preparing meals, you should use more spices such as onions, garlic, lemongrass, ginger … because in addition to vitamins and minerals, they also have plant antibiotics. At the same time, ensuring food hygiene and safety, eating cooked food, drinking boiling water, eating right after the food has just been cooked.

In addition to ensuring the daily water needs, a small number of F0 people may develop cough, fever, pneumonia … leading to dehydration and some electrolytes such as sodium, potassium … so increase water supplementation to prevent dehydration. Replenishing the amount of water lost to help the body recover quickly is very necessary.

The choice of drinking water to supplement is water such as oresol, coconut water, lemon fruit smoothie, orange juice, grapefruit juice, mango juice, gotu kola… In addition to providing water, they also provide vitamins and minerals. Essential minerals for the body.

F0 should not use alcohol, beer because it is difficult to monitor the progress of the disease and limit the use of soft drinks and carbonated water.

MSc. Dr. Nguyen Van Tien (Center for Education and Communication, National Institute of Nutrition)

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