The oldest solar observatory in the Americas was discovered off the coast of Peru. This is considered a ceremonial site providing evidence of “sun god religions” operating in South America 2,300 years ago.
Earlier, archaeologists discovered 4,000-year-old earthenware fragments in Peru that showed the image of a “scepter-wielding god” with rays emanating from his head, perhaps resembling the Sun (symbolized by the Sun (symbolized by the Sun). oldest religious statue of the Americas).
Historical records also describe “solar pillars” suggesting that the Incan civilization of South America observed the Sun – possibly helping to mark the time of sowing – around AD 1,500, although Those pillars are now destroyed.
The Incas also held public ceremonies to observe the sunrise or sunset at marked positions on the horizon, and ancient Inca chieftains also claimed their rule through ” kinship” with the Sun.
Peruvian archaeologist Ivan Ghezzi and study co-author Clive Ruggles of the University of Leicester, UK, say previous civilizations in Peru may also have observed the Sun, even the earliest. was in the fourth century BC.
They draw their conclusions based on the ruins at a walled Peruvian coastal site called Chankillo. Once thought to be a fortified ceremonial center or temple, researchers now suggest that the central complex of the ruins may have actually been used as a solar observatory.
In Chankillo, 13 equally spaced rectangular towers run the length of the 300m ridge like a spine, creating an artificial horizon. According to measurement data, 13 stone towers in Chankillo are located from 4.7m to 5.1m apart. At the time of construction, the towers were completely flat on top. Each tower has a different shape and size with a width of 70 – 130m and a height of up to 6m. They are spread across the Sun’s rising and setting positions, shifting north and south along the horizon over the course of a year.
On either side of the mountain are the ruins of observatories (there are two observatories on the east and west side) – which scientists say were used to observe the sunrise or sunset between the towers. On the summer solstice, the sun rises between tower 1 and a nearby mountain, and on the winter solstice, the sun rises around tower 13. This site may have been the site of various public ceremonies and festivals concerning the seasons and the Sun. Excavations have uncovered pottery, seashells and other artifacts near an opening in the western lookout.
The sun only appears for a day or two in each gap between the towers, and it takes six months to get from one end of the structure to the other. So maybe different towers are used to divide the year into regular intervals.
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