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An effective method of studying for the final Biology exam

Ms. Thanh Xuan, Le Hong Phong High School for the Gifted (Nam Dinh), shares effective review methods for each part of theory and Biology exercises in the graduation exam.

The content of Biology subject has two parts, theory and exercises. Although they are unified in terms of knowledge, the review method for each part has its own specific characteristics.

Theory Section

Biology is a natural science but has many theories; Therefore, to study effectively, you can use the following ways.

1. Systematize theory with mind maps and tables

Analysis of illustrative topics for high school graduation in 2022 biology shows the theoretical content concentrated in chapter I of Grade 11 Biology and the entire Grade 12 Biology program. In order to remember and understand the nature of knowledge, students should system their knowledge with mind maps and tables. expression.

Ms. Tran Thi Thanh Xuan, School of Biology, Le Hong Phong High School for the Gifted (Nam Dinh).  Photo: Character provided

Ms. Tran Thi Thanh Xuan, School of Biology, Le Hong Phong High School for the Gifted (Nam Dinh). Image: Characters provided

Example: Chapter Mechanism of inheritance – Variation in Biology 12 includes many difficult knowledge. Specifically:

* Contents of the mechanism of Inheritance and variation at the molecular level include:

The main genetic material at the molecular level is DNA, which stores and transmits genetic information.

– The mechanism of genetic information transmission through generations is DNA replication.

– Mechanisms of expression of genetic information: transcription, translation and regulation of gene activity.

The mechanism of mutation is genetic mutation.

To review the content of the genetic mechanism, candidates can make a table or mind map according to the following criteria: concept, time, pattern, raw materials, catalytic enzyme, evolution, result, meaning. . With the content of genetic mutations, students do the same according to the following criteria: concepts, forms, causes, mechanisms, consequences, and roles.

* Contents of genetic mechanisms and mutations at the cellular level include:

The basis of genetic material at the cellular level is chromosomes, which store and transmit genetic information.

The mechanism of transmission of genetic information across generations is mitosis and meiosis.

– Mechanism of mutation is structural mutation of chromosomes, aneuploidy and polyploidy. Post content Structural mutations of NST can be systematized by the following table:

FormsExpressionConsequences, role (meaning)
Missing paragraphA mutation that causes a part of a chromosome to be lost.

Consequences: decrease in the number of genes, gene imbalance, so it often causes death for mutants.

Example: In humans, a short shoulder of chromosome 5 causes cat meow syndrome.

Meaning: cause a small deletion to remove unwanted genes from the chromosomes in plants.

Repeat paragraphA mutation that causes a certain segment of a chromosome to be repeated one or more times.

Consequences: increasing the number of genes on the chromosome leads to an imbalance in the genome, which can harm the mutant. In addition, it is possible to increase the number of gene products.

Example: In barley, duplication increases amylase enzyme activity, which is significant in the brewing industry.

Role: Duplication leads to gene duplication, facilitating gene mutations, creating new genes for evolution, making 2 alleles of a gene located on the same chromosome.

ParadoxIs a mutation that causes a certain segment of chromosomes to break off, then rotate 180 degrees and reconnect to the old position.

Consequence: altering the order of distribution of genes on chromosomes. Therefore, it is possible to alter gene activity.

Role: contribute to the creation of raw materials for the evolutionary process.

TransitionA mutation that results in the exchange of segments within a chromosome or between non-homologous chromosomes.


– Translocation on a chromosome does not change the number and gene composition of a chromosome, but changes the order of the distribution of genes on the chromosome.

– Large translocations between 2 chromosomes often change the group of genes linked, so mutants often have reduced fertility.

Important role in the formation of new species.

Practical application: use small translocation to transfer some desired genes from chromosomes of one species to chromosomes of another species.

2. Do not study cabinets, learn by rote, need to understand the essence of each knowledge unit

The high school graduation Biology exam is in the form of multiple choice, the content of knowledge covers the entire program. Therefore, candidates need to avoid dividing the knowledge sections by level of importance. Some children often spend a lot of time reviewing genetics without paying attention to other sections, leading to low scores.

Candidates need to understand the nature of knowledge in order to answer theoretical questions at the level of comprehension and application. These sentences require learners to be able to synthesize information, deeply understand problems and solve practical problems.

In the 12th grade Biology program, some difficult knowledge such as chapter Mechanism of inheritance – variation or have many discrete events like chapter Genetic applications. Here are some suggestions to help you review these chapters more effectively.

To understand the nature of the mechanisms of heredity – variation at the molecular and cellular levels, children can use the picture channel.

Example 1: Use the exercise to fill in the blanks with the names of the enzymes, the Okazaki fragments and the directions of the remaining polynucleotide chains in the figure below to review the self-replicating mechanism of DNA.

Effective method of studying for the final Biology exam - 1

Example 2: Use the following table to review the Plant Cell Technology section in Grade 12 Biology

MethodStarting materialResult
Cell culture (tissue)2n somatic cells (tissues) of roots, leaves,…Produce a large number of plants with the same genotype and the original cultivar
Culture of unfertilized pollen grains or ovulesPollen or unfertilized ovule (haploid cell)Produce plants that are homozygous for all genes
Somatic cell hybridization (bare cell fusion)Two somatic cells of two plant speciesCreating a diploid tree with characteristics of 2 species

When they understand this part, they can apply it to solve higher requirements such as: What methods should be used to create a purebred tree with characteristics of two distantly related species? ? Based on the results of each method presented in the table above, students can easily choose two methods: somatic cell hybridization and pollen culture.

3. Regularly practice theory questions

From this point until the day of the test, every day, candidates should practice at least one theory question so that the knowledge “absorbs” slowly into the brain. This can get boring, so you can create quizzes on apps like Quizizz for inspiration.

Exercise Section

In order to solve Biology exercises, candidates should classify them into types of exercises (inheritance – variation mechanism, genetic laws, genealogy, population genetics, ecology…) and methods. The solution for each type is accompanied by illustrative examples.

They need to know the formulas for the structure of DNA, duplicating DNA, determining the number of genotypes in the mating population, the genotypic frequency of the mating and automating populations, the relationship between the proportions of phenotype with genotype of given P, calculate ecological efficiency…

“Learning goes hand in hand with practice”, so in order to achieve high results, candidates need to actively solve exercises, draw up methods, and improve their calculation skills and speed after each practice. In the process of practice, students will know how to ask more new questions to answer themselves, familiarize themselves with question types of high generality.

Tran Thi Thanh Xuan
Head of Biology Department, Le Hong Phong High School for the Gifted (Nam Dinh)

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